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Title: The Development of Pondok and Madrasah in Kedah, 1909-1941
Authors: Farid Mat Zain ; Ibrahim Abu Bakar
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Keywords: Religious Education; Pondok; Madrasah; Kedah
Abstract:Kedah is a state in the Federation of Malaysia formed in 1963. Between 1909 and 1941, Kedah was under
British rule since the Federated and Unfederated Malay States in Malaya willingly or unwillingly came under
British rule. Through the Anglo-Siam Treaty of 1909, Kedah was placed under British rule. This paper examines
the development of Muslim religious educational institutions known as pondok and madrasah in Kedah from the
year of signing the Anglo-Siam Treaty until the Japanese armies invaded and occupied Malaya in 1941. Under
British rule, Islamic religious matters and Malay custom were under the jurisdiction of the Malay ruler of
Kedah. The British ruled Kedah through the British Resident who advised the Kedah ruler in matters related to
state administration, finance and security. The British educational policies enabled the Malays, whose religion
had always been Islam, to establish and manage the pondok and madrasah in Kedah to teach and spread Islamic
teachings to themselves and their children. Library research methods are used in this paper. This paper assumes
that the development of pondok and madrasah in Kedah in those years was a response to British rule