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Title: Scale Morphology of the Indian Goatfish, Parupeneus Indicus (Shaw, 1803) (Perciformes: Mullidae)
Authors: Mark Lloyd G. Dapar; Mark Anthony J. Torres; Princess Keren Fabricante ; Cesar G. Demayo
Aff: Department of Biological Sciences, College of Sciences and Mathematics MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, Philippines
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Keywords: Squamatology; Comparative Scale Morphology; Principal Component; Scale Variation; Sexual Dimorphism
Abstract:Scales have numerous hidden details in their structures that contribute effectively to fish identification and classification. A traditional approach has been made to study the scale morphology of the Indian goatfish Parupeneus indicus using a stereomicroscope in tandem with a 12.2 megapixel Samsung ST500 digital camera in which digitized images were processed using Adobe Photoshop CS4 Extended software. Two specimens of fish sample of both sexes were described qualitatively and observed quantitatively. Thirty scales in every region were obtained for description and comparison. In describing the scales, several distinguishable characteristics were considered such as the type of the scale, overall scale shape, scale size, the shape of the posterior margin group of ctenii square, the position of the focus, circuli appearance, and the type of radii. Results of the study revealed that there are significant variations of shapes observed between male and female species. The presence of disrupted circuli, the same type of radii existing in each body regions in both sexes of the fish cannot be used to establish sexual dimorphism in P. indicus due to their similarities. The existence of an oblong scale shape is unique to males and that of a cycloid shape unique to females. Also, the variation of other scale shapes in region G where male has rectangular while female has triangular shapes but both have square scale shape and in region J where male has rectangular shape while female has square shape but both have triangular shape. Thus, these are significant indicator of sexual dimorphism between the sexes of P. indicus.