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Title: Effect of Nitrogen Sources on Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) Yield and Yield Components under Mediterranean Rainfed Environment
Authors: Sameh Boukef; Chahine Karmous; Sawsen Ayadi; Youssef Trifa; Salah Rezgui
Aff: Department of Agronomy and Plant Biotechnology, National Institute of Agriculture of Tunis, Avenue Charles Nicolle 1002 Tunis, Tunisia
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Keywords: Ammonium Sulfate Nitrate; Urea; Genotypic Variability; Efficient Nitrogen Source
Abstract:Nitrogen (N) fertilization constitutes one of the most important wheat cropping practice. In addition to ammonium-nitrate which was the most used In Tunisian agriculture, many N chemical sources were introduced recently. A field study was conducted on three durum wheat genotypes. Ammonium sulfate nitrate (ASN) and urea fertilizers N source were used to generate seven N levels. The experiment was designed as a split-split-plot arrangement with three replications. In addition to plant high (H), yield and yield component parameters were measured as: number of spike per m2 (NS), number of grains per spike (NG), thousand kernel weight (TKW), average yield (Y). The results showed a positive correlation between N levels and all measured parameters. Only thousand kernel weight (TKW) was significantly affected by the interaction of genotypes, N sources and levels. In addition, ASN was more efficient than urea as N source. ASN Nitrogen source was more efficient with an average yield increase of 6.05% for ‘Karim’, 3.70% for ‘Om Rabia’ and 8.98% for ‘Nasr’ compared to urea. The highest yield (40.86 qx/ha) was obtained by ‘Om Rabia’ under the highest ASN treatment (93.8 KgNha-1). This efficient genotype under ASN showed an increase of H (22.67%), TKW (2.57%), NS (1.28) and NG (1.61) compared to urea. Our results showed that ASN was a more efficient N source than urea due mainly to its mineral and available form for wheat roots.