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Title: Phytochemistry and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils of Two Species of Rosmarinus the High Atlas Morocco
Authors: Kamal Fadili; Safae Ayane; Oussama Hadic; Fatima Elhilali; Youssef Khabbal; Touria Zair
Aff: Moulay Ismail University, Faculty of Sciences, BP 11201. Zitoune, Mekns, Morocco
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Keywords: Rosmarinus Officinalis; Rosmarinus Eriocalyx; Essential Oils; Phytochemistry,antibacterial Activity; GC-Mc,chemical Composition
Abstract:Background: Rosemary is a well known aromatic and medicinal plant whose consumption serves to remedy number of disorders. Its Essential oil (EO) constitutes an important ingredient for well-being feeling improvement through beauty products such as soaps, perfumes, deodorants. In Morocco, two species of rosemary which have never been studied are mentioned. They are Rosmarinus officinalis. L and Rosmarinus Eriocalyx. Objective: This study was designed to valorize rosemary species: Rosmarinus officinalis and Rosmarinus eriocalyx harvested in Eastern Moroccan High Atlas. It reveals chemical composition (non-volatile and volatile) and antibacterial activity of their essential oils. Results: The species are rich in flavonoids, tannins, sterols, triterpenes, saponins, free anthraquinones, mucilages, cardiac glycosides and catechols. But tests for alkaloids, reducing compounds, carotenoids, holosids,tetrahydrocannabinols and coumarins were negative. Average yields of essential oils from aerial part of Rosmarinus officinalis and Rosmarinus eriocalyx extracted by hydrodistillation are respectively 2.37% and 2.79%. Analytical studies of essential oils by GC / MS showed that both species have almost the same profil: a- pinene, -pinene, camphene, camphor, borneol were found as predominant compounds and 1,8-cineole as chemotype with 43% for Rosmarinus officinalis and 45% for Rosmarinus eriocalyx. Results of microbiological tests showed antibacterial effects against the tested pathogens. Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations vary from 1.04 mg/ml to 16.7 mg/ml. Conclusion: This study on the species Rosmarinus officinalis and Rosmarinus Eriocalyx proved that 1, 8-cineole is the chemotypes. The phytochemical screening of the species has highlighted that both plants are rich in secondary metabolites. Preliminary results of antibacterial study showed in vitro efficiency of the species.