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Title: Antibacterial Activity of the Stem Bark Extracts of Detarium Senegalense JF Gmelin
Authors: Fatimah; S. Sanni; Hajja Gana Hamza; Madu; A. Gadaka; Patrick; A. Onyeyili; Saka Sanni
Aff: Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. P.M.B. 117 Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria,
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Keywords: Antibacteria; Organic Solvents; Infectious Diseases; Medicinal Plants; Phytochemicals
Abstract:Background: The global trend in the upsurge of antibiotic resistance has necessitated an urgent need to develop new antimicrobial agents. Plants have long been successfully used in traditional medical practice in the treatment of infectious diseases. The use of Detarium senegalense, a widely distributed tropical plant in the folkloric treatment of infectious diseases in Nigeria has not been fully investigated. Objective: This study was therefore designed to investigate the effect of various organic solvent fractions of the aqueous extract of the stem bark of D. senegalense on both grampositive and gram-negative bacteria. Results: The result showed that the aqueous extract was active against only Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at the concentration range of 200 1000 mg/ml while the organic solvent fractions were active against all the bacteria tested. The methanolic fraction exhibited relatively strong inhibitory activity against all the organisms tested, with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 50 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml respectively against all the organisms tested, except Streptococcus pyogenes that had higher MIC of 100 mg/ml and MBC of 200 mg/ml. This result compared closely with the standard antibiotic (tetracycline 250 mg/ml) used in this work. Conclusion: In conclusion, the broad spectrum inhibitory activity of the various extracts of stem bark of D. senegalense against both gramnegative and gram-positive bacteria recorded in this study strongly support the traditional use of the plant in the treatment of diseases.